Over the past decade, autistic people and their families have increasingly experimented with medical marijuana and products derived from it. Many hope these compounds will alleviate a range of autism-related traits and problems. But scientists are still in the early stages of rigorous research into marijuana’s safety and effectiveness, which means that people who pursue it as treatment must rely mostly on anecdotal information from friends and message boards for guidance.
Here we explain what researchers know about the safety and effectiveness of cannabis for autism and related conditions.
What is medical marijuana?
Medical marijuana generally refers to any product derived from cannabis plants — including dried flowers, resins and oils — that has been recommended by a doctor. It may be consumed directly or infused into an array of foods, lozenges and candies. These products have become popular among autistic people and their families for treating a broad swath of conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain.
Depending on the strain of the plant and the processing methods used, these products contain varying levels of active ingredients, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — responsible for the ‘high’ associated with marijuana — and cannabidiol (CBD), which is minimally psychoactive. Much of the research on medical applications focuses on CBD. There are also more than 500 other compounds in marijuana that may affect people’s behavior and cognition1.
Is medical marijuana legal?
Yes and no. Federal law in the United States classifies marijuana and its derivatives as ‘Schedule 1’ drugs, meaning that they have no accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Schedule 1 drugs are illegal, and research on them requires labs to follow strict security protocols and adhere to regular facility inspections.
In 33 states, along with the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, however, people can legally buy and use medical cannabis for certain approved conditions, such as seizures and sleep problems, although the list of qualifying conditions varies by state. These same states, plus 13 others, also allow CBD oil. Fourteen states plus Puerto Rico have approved medical marijuana for autism, and some additional states may allow it for autistic people at a doctor’s discretion.
Under U.S. federal law, CBD products manufactured from industrial hemp are legal as long as they contain no more than 0.3 percent THC. And in some states, CBD oil is permitted to contain up to 5 percent THC.